It is more important than ever that we have scientifically literate populations. In the Early Years, this means that proactive steps need to be in place to ensure that children have opportunities to learn science from a young age. Integrated approaches that promote science as a way of thinking, organizing, and using information to make decisions is foregrounded in many countries as an explicit curriculum goal. With science traditionally emphasized less than other areas in the Early Years classroom there are now consistent calls for it to be viewed as a core offering, with learning opportunities covering diverse areas such as learning the difference between living and non-living things, examining the life cycles of humans and other creatures, understanding the physical changes in the earth and sky (e.g., seasons and weather), studying the properties of matter, and examining the behaviour of materials (e.g., melting). In addition, there are growing perspectives on the skills children should know before entering primary school. In science, such skills cover processes, manipulation, and critical and creative thinking, and in the process skills area alignment to school readiness agendas consistently identify observing, describing, comparing, questioning, predicting, experimenting, reflecting, and cooperating, as key.